Citing in other citation styles

Citation styles reflect the tone and focus of the writing that they support. MLA and APA are the most common citation styles, but there are many others. Below are brief descriptions and links to a few styles that could be helpful during your studies.

Chicago style

Chicago style is most commonly used in history and the sciences. It includes two systems for documenting sources: the Notes-Bibliography system (NB) and the Author-Date system.

  • The Notes-Bibliography system uses footnotes or endnotes, which list the citation and any commentary at the bottom of the page or at the end of the publication. The NB system is preferred in historical research.
  • The Author-Date system uses parenthetical citations, where the citation information directly follows the referenced material. This system is preferred in the sciences.

Details about how to use Chicago style can be found in the Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide, The Chicago Manual of Style (17th edition), or Purdue’s Online Writing Lab (OWL).

Associated Press (AP) style

AP style is used for writing in journalism. Sources are typically cited within the story instead of in an official bibliography or footnotes. Details about writing in AP style can be found at the AP Stylebook Online or at the OWL at Purdue's APA page.

American Medical Association (AMA) style

The American Medical Association has its own manual of style, used in its publication, The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). For details on this citation and writing style, consult the AMA Manual of Style online or the OWL at Purdue's AMA page.

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers has set guidelines for writing within the field of engineering. Details can be found at the OWL at Purdue's IEEE page.