Citing Sources in APA

APA style is a standard for formatting citations that is overseen by the American Psychological Association and is used by a number of disciplines. All items cited in a paper should contain both a brief in-text citation at the point of use in the body of the paper and a full citation that is listed in the References page at the end.

In-text citations

In-text citations should include the last name of the author(s) and year. Generally, page numbers should only be included when quotations are used. For example:

(Tufte, 2006)

(Tufte, 2006, p. 33)

References list

Citations generally follow this order: Authors, date, Title of article, Title of journal, publication information, doi

Baker, T., & Clark, J. (2011). Educational equity in ethnically diverse group work. Intercultural Education, 22(5), 411–422.

Keep these tips in mind when compiling your References list:

  • Alphabetize and double-space all entries.
  • Do not spell out first and middle names of authors and editors; use initials only.
  • Use hanging indents (i.e., all lines except the first of each citation should be indented).
  • Use “sentence case” for article and book titles (i.e., capitalize the first letter of the first word, the first letter of the first word after a colon or dash, and the first letter of proper nouns).
  • Capitalize the first letter of all major words in journal titles.

More information

  • For complete APA formatting information, check out the most recent (6th) edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , which is available at the Research Desk in the Knowledge Center for in-library use.
  • Purdue University Online Writing Lab is a good free resource that covers most of the main media formats you’ll need to cite.
  • The APA Style Guide includes some free learning resources about APA style online. The APA Style Blog also contains additional examples of citing different types of sources.